Friday, August 14, 2009

Lagi berita berkenaan H1N1

Dalam minggu ni... sadi dapat mc dari isnin sampai hari khamis... pasal tak sihat... tapi bukan laa kena H1N1... just perlukan rehat dari kerja sekejap... so hari ni nak share cerita berkenaan H1N1 ni lagi... layaaannnnnnn......


Extracts from various sources related to H1N1-
- As the 2009 pandemic evolves the data needed for risk assessment, both within affected countries and at the global level is also changing

- Further spread of the pandemic is considered inevitable. Assumption fully backed by experience.

- Adding to the concern is the fact that the H1N1 virus has spread at such a staggering speed despite it not being as “efficient” as it could be.

- Research by MIT and CDC reported in online edition of Science showed the H1N1 virus “has a form of surface protein that binds inefficiently to receptors found in the respiratory tract. While the virus is able to bind to human receptors, it clearly appears to be restricted. That restriction, or weak binding, along with a genetic variation in an H1N1 polymerase enzyme explains why the virus has not spread as efficiently as seasonal flu”.

- However flu viruses are known to mutate rapidly, so there is cause for concern if H1N1 undergoes mutations that improve its binding affinity. Careful attention has to be paid to the evolution of the virus.

- Cluster control is still the best option since the H1N1 spread less effectively since it was “restricted” to only airborne respiratory droplets. Most outbreaks occurred in limited clusters, sometimes within a family or a school but not spread much further.

- WHO’s efforts shifted to identifying people and age groups most at risk from contracting the virus. Majority of persons who contracted the virus were children between the ages of 12 and 17. As the pandemic spreads other age groups are becoming increasingly affected. Priority to determine which age group face the highest threat and take measures accordingly.

- Regional meeting of health ministers from 22 WHO East Meditn region recommended that people from high risk pop groups incldg pregnant women and those with underlying health conditions should reconsider taking part in the upcoming Haj pilgrimage to Mecca in November. Similarly WHO consulting other govts and experts regarding other mass gatherings such as concerts and the 2010 football World Cup in South Africa.

- While the mortality rate remains low, another US study (published in journal Nature) shows that the H1N1 virus is more virulent than previously thought. The team found that in contrast with the seasonal flu virus the H1N1 virus exhibits an ability to infect cells deep in the lungs, where it can cause pneumonia and in severe cases, death. Seasonal viruses typically infect only cells in the upper respiratory system. The study shows that H1N1 is not similar to seasonal influenza. This ability of the H1N1 virus to infect the lungs in this manner was a quality similar to those of other devastating pandemic viruses, notably the 1918 virus.

- It is possible that the virus could become even more pathogenic as the current pandemic runs its course and the virus evolves to acquire new features. The virus is expected to return in force to the Northern Hemisphere during the fall and winter flu season.

Status of H1N1 vaccine development
a) Based on WHO global survey (15 May 2009) max of 4.9 billion doses potentially could be produced in 12 months, but ONLY IF several assumptions are met
- Full global manufacturing capacity is devoted to this production
- Production yields for H1N1 vaccine are similar to those obtained for seasonal vaccines
- Each manufacturer uses the vaccine formulation that is most “dose-sparing” (using a smaller quantity of active principle)
A more conservative estimate of global capacity is at least 1 to 2 billion doses per year
The no of persons who might be vaccinated will not be known until it is determined whether one or two doses of the vaccine will be needed to achieve protection

b) Anti-viral drugs are discouraged for prevention of illness in healthy children or adults

c) Inappropriate use of oseltamivir (tamiflu) for chemoprophylaxis could contribute to the development of resistance among H1N1 viruses and circulation of resistant viruses in the community.


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